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FIE
 

Training Manual

INTRODUCTION

The Hungarian method is pedagogically sound. This manuscript provides a technical path for a coach to give lessons to a pupil, not only by informing which component actions should be taught in a particular order, but also how the actions should be taught and are best learnt. Accordingly the manuscript gives guidance on what observations the coach should make to the student to correct the typical faults frequently made by students following this path The method also provides 'motif' exercises which are designed to aid and imprint the acquisition of technical knowledge; develop speed and provide the correct methods for the tactical application of learnt components. The motifs increase in complexity in terms of the actions of which they are comprised and the variety of footwork used, however it is important to note that even for the most advanced student, these motifs should be used in isolation from each other, as, in this way they remain distinct and clear in the mind of the pupil. Thus the work is divided into teaching of actions ( components ), training of multiple actions as a phrase ( motifs ), and the Lesson.

NB THIS MANUSCRIPT SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH INDUCTIVE TRAINING.. HOWEVER SOME OF THE PEDAGOGY AND PATHWAYS WOULD BE OF INTEREST TO ALL COACHES BUT MAY BE A LITTLE DIFFICULT TO FOLLOW FOR SOME.

N.B THE EPEE CHAPTER IS MOST PEDAGOGICAL, IT CAN BE USED AS A GUIDE FOR THE OTHER WEAPONS. THE SABRE AND FOIL CHAPTERS OF THIS PAPER ARE LIMITED, BESIDES WHICH IT IS NOT SO ADVISABLE TO ADVERTISE ALL COACHING TECHNIQUES AND METHODOLOGY, AND IMPOLITE TO TRANSMIT THE LESSON PLANS OF OTHER COACHES IN TOO MUCH DETAIL. IT IS ADVISED THAT TRAINEES WHERE POSSIBLE SHOULD VIDEO LESSONS FOR LATER STUDY AND ANALYSIS.

Note to contents.

This paper is divided into Category A,B,C,D exercises ( for teaching / practice of actions )

Category A is general physical & psychological preparation in the form of components and motifs for practicing learnt actions.

Category B is fencing specific movement in the form of preparatory ex for the teaching and induction of actions.

Category C describes examples of individual lesson plans

Category D comprises components to individual lesson ( which can be inserted into the lesson plans once A&B attained )

Please also note that there are four chapters; namely ; epee; foil ; sabre ; and general teaching notes. And that each chapter is divided into " lessons " i.e lesson 1,2,3 etc each lesson is a unit that can be taught to a class or individual and the lessons are progressive and logical. To give an idea, the epee paper lessons are a two year teaching plan to train student from zero. Please also note that under lessons plans I use a, b, c, d, to denote logical progression of exercises in a lesson or class, and it is not to be confused with the ABCD of category above.

Foreword.

I hope this is of some use to some people. To my knowledge it is the first technical pedagogical ' how to ' paper for coaches that is available on line. It is also quite modern and is a facsimile of part of the coaching method of the Hungarian national fencing coaches programme. I have attended the three month residential programme for the diploma, and further completed one month per year for five further years where i joined others on the same programme; i therefor repeated the programme and was diligent in recording the method. The method did not vary from year to year. The course directors delivered exactly the same programme. I have an MA in law and a reasonable brain so i hope i have not presented an inaccurate synopsis.

I would recommend that coaches also use the old books of crosnier which have some good simple lesson plans for class instruction, and also try to find a copy of imre vass ' epee '. Also try to enjoy this paper and take something positive from it. With Kind regards. MK


General Teaching Points

Teaching profile keep body always turned well away from student in narrow profile for foil, sabre it is o.k to turn broadsider, keep elbow always tucked well in, almost over to quarte. keep free hand always in view
Teaching steps keep upper body static during movement to avoid false signals or advertising intentions, coaches steps are timed exactly the same as fencing steps i.e heel toe co-ordination
Teaching controls tempo, distance, target, invito, observation
Teaching tempo tempo ... is vital for controlling initiative, moment to attack, moment to parry, to counter attack. There is a difference between physical and psychical. Psychologically concentration has a frequency, all humans have this characteristic, everything in fencing can be taught except this.
Teaching observation when a class .. do not point out individuals, just articulate the fault, so use Positive ReInforcement. With multiple faults just correct the main fault, if correction is unsuccessful do not force it Change Focus
Teaching Invitos completed after the students action i.e student is quicker. realistic and threatening made when least expected
Teaching replacement done after a lunge.. i.e recover with line, in the fight it is always executed on pupils initiative so taught this way two ways let hit arrive, recover with line, step onto second hit OR at the lunge open distance to make hit fall short and student doesn't recover until I step in again onto hit.
Teaching envelopments my point should sit on pupils guard ...also suggested as paired exercise, with transports and change engagements
Teaching engagements present blade flat so student takes foible with their forte
Teaching technique my invitos and all students actions must be as tight as possible artificially so because in combat all movements become exaggerated
Teaching 1st Principle of technical lesson five repititions then progress on to next minimal footwork lots of lunges at first master adjusts the distance later student adjusts
Teaching opposition sixte guard position for finish of hits Tierze
Teaching bind / filo pupil should begin in the opposite quarter i.e starting in quarte,
pupil takes a sixte holding parry and coule in
Teaching opposition finish position always wrist bent cocked completely, so blades form a cross C my arm is straight
Teaching counter parrys I can use cheat presentations as learnt with lukovich
Teaching footwork generally hands on hips to teach separation and centre
Teaching double step key four preparatory exercises
I stamp back foot and immediately step forward
II front toe lift simultaneously with
III front ft forward stretch finish step by bringing up and as first stamp back foot and immediately step forward
IV back foot back and finish step by
Teaching differences sabre hand after foot
epee always line, steps , recovery coach taps at last hit of phrase only parry riposte with step back, and only ever one parry not time for two, coach can feint and get a change tho' Never teach recovery with parry Always Line degage

Epee, ( contents )

Lesson 1

( A.) physical & psychological prep. warm up.. types of tag

asymmetrical, acyclical, D.R.T ( decision reaction time ) games
( B.) fencing movement method for teaching Footwork ( double step ) using foible
Footwork exercises with tennis balls
Footwork exercises with mental challenges

Lesson 2

( B.) fencing movement method for teaching Footwork with weapon
method for teaching hitting technique.
exercises with weapon
method for teaching Tempo and Distance with ball exercises
( C. ) individual lesson individual lesson induction

coaching technique

Lesson 3

( D. ) components to ind.lesson Angle Thrust induction

Sixte Opposition Thrust induction
motif of 5 varied hits
( B. ) fencing movement Fleche induction
( C. ) individual lesson A short individual lesson
Tactical Condition

Lesson 4

( B.) fencing movement advanced games with target

advanced Footwork. methods & exercises
advanced Footwork. Glide & Balestra
advanced Footwork. benchwork and paired training
( D. ) components The Feint induction
The Change Engagement induction
The Presse induction
The Beat induction
The Beat intermediate
Angle thrust intermediate

Lesson 5

( C. ) individual lesson Principal Lesson Plan

Signal Condition

( D. ) components motif Angle Thrust

The Coupe induction
The Flick induction
motif Coupes, Flicks to wrist

Lesson 6

( D. ) components

motif Parry, Flick & Opposition Thrust advanced
motif Flick hits with :: Feint , Pressing , Beat , Change Engagement , Change Beat
motif Angle Thrusts with Parry Riposte
motif warm up
Prise du Fer induction
motif Fleche with change engagement, feint, flanconade, coupe
The Second Intention induction
motif angle thrusts, riposte by disengage, feint attack, redouble
Change, Ceding, Opposition Parries induction


Lesson 1

( A.) physical & psychological prep. warm up.. types of tag
asymmetrical, acyclical, D.R.T ( decision reaction time ) games
( B.) fencing movement method for teaching Footwork ( double step ) using foible
N.B speed of steps not size
N.B the sound of the steps is a useful indication

Footwork exercises with tennis balls
Footwork exercises with mental challenges

physical & psychological prep. ( A.)

warm up.. types of tag
A) simple tag
B) body area tag ( tagged party must clutch where touched )
C) mimic tag ( catcher must mimic defenders action before tagging )
D) glove tag ( tuck glove into back of trouser )
E) skipping rope ( tempo hoop Q training )

asymmetrical, acyclical, D.R.T exercises
A) starjumps, swapping hand action legs apart hands by side & opp.
B) clockjumps, hands out to side
C) clockjumps, hands to front, then one hand to front, one to side
D) as c. but change hands once at top of cycle
E) skipping normal, then two cycles one jump, then crossing hands

fencing movement ( B.)

method for teaching Footwork ( double step ) using foible
A) with Foible on floor single steps, then double steps
B) from en guarde lift back foot tap down then step forward
C) from en guarde lift back foot and sole of front tap both then step
D) from en guarde begin step forward ( toes to ceiling ), pause, finish step & immediately another
E) from en guarde begin step back ( toes to ceiling ), pause, then back foot up finish step & immediately another.
F) from enguarde quick steps on the spot then on command Appell the back foot & step forward
G) as above on command Appell front foot step back
H) as above f & g with a different command for a lunge
N.B student has to be taught importance of keeping feet always at minimum distance from the floor,,, speed of steps not size
N.B the sound of the steps is a useful indication
footwork exercises with tennis balls
A) from en guarde, bounce and catch on beginning of lunge
B) in pairs bounce and catch on end of lunge
C) from en guarde roll off front of hand and catch
D) en guarde bounce ball from elbow and catch
E) en guarde roll ball off front of hand clap and catch
footwork exercises with mental challenges
A) using both hands up high ( coach stationary ) double steps, forward and back, single steps f&b and lunges
B) '' '' student does opposite to invited ( lunge&recover remains the same )
C) as above a&b but if left arm falls step and lunge, if right just lunge
D) as a then b but coach uses vocal commands
E) as a&b mixed ( coach swaps between by reversing hand ) N.B class should move as one. easier to spot mistakes & leaders signals can mislead as well as the coaches

Lesson 2

( B.) fencing movement method for teaching Footwork with weapon

N.B always impress the mantra of Line with Epee method for teaching hitting technique.
N.B student concentrate on accuracy, technique, relaxed finish exercises with weapon method for teaching Tempo and Distance with ball exercises
N.B : do not not allow rythm to develop, change speed, change frequency, change size
( C. ) individual lesson induction to the individual lesson
coaching technique
N.B ~ do not teach hitting with steps forward for a year or more

fencing movement ( B.) with weapon

method for teaching Footwork with weapon
A) Lunge.... teach Recovery with Line
B) step forward .... point should move forward
C) step back ...... point should move forward
D) Step and Lunge ... point extended by end of step
E) Recover with Line always step back with Line always. Point threats
N.B Always impress the mantra of Line with epee
method for teaching hitting technique.
A) always start with Lunges never steps. Recover with Line
B) stay in lunge, Remise then recover, ( concentrate on elbow )
C) stay in lunge, double Remise then recover ( relax the shoulder )
D) from stationary, hit, then double hit
E) from stationary, hit, step back, lunge, recover then reset.(large steps)
N.B student must concentrate on accuracy, technique, relaxed finish
exercises with weapon
A) hitting with varied rythms ( on own initiative )
B) with varied rythms and different areas of the target
C) in a line, using periphery vision, one starts other follow. mexican wv
D) paired exercises, matching rythms.
E) paired practice, racing, then with feints.
method for teaching Tempo and Distance with ball exercises
A) en guarde bounce ball eyes forward then stepping on spot
B) steps forward continuously.... then back, then fwd & back alternately'
C) distance keeping in pairs, hands on ball
D) throwing, catch with step back return with lunge. Bouncing return with bounce, throwing return with bounce
E) two on one as above .
N.B do not allow rhythm to develop, change Speed, change Frequency, change Size

individual lesson ( C. )

individual lesson induction
A) check pupils arm position, then pupil extends and lunges on coaches invitation with free hand, stays in lunge, coach checks, then signals recovery
B) coach invites with non sword arm, pupil lunges and recovers
C) coach invites to Sixte or Quarte, pupil goes Lunge Direct
D) as above three exercises with moving
E ) add Remise so pupil understands recovery with line
N.B coaching Technique Coach should always stand more sideways than normal, legs bent much less than normal, should always use non - sword arm to communicate
N.B ~ do not teach with steps forward for a year or more


Lesson 3

( D. ) components to ind.lesson Angle Thrust induction

N. B always taught with lunges at the beginning when teaching Angle Thrusts coach presents target and moves the target towards the student with legs, no moving of target
Sixte Opposition Thrust induction
motif of 5 varied hits
N.B only tap to confirm the last hit of Epee phrase / motif
( B. ) fencing movement Fleche induction
( C. ) individual lesson A short individual lesson
N.B coach parries b4 the step can add the tactical condition

Components to individual lesson ( D. )

Angle Thrust ( wrist hit ) induction
A) to wrist with a lunge to all four angles
B) with a step back
C) with a step back and remise with second step
D) with step back and remise step again and Redouble 3rd long step ( reverse lunge )
F ) with lunge, recover redouble stop hit step out
N. B always taught with lunges at the beginning - after a few lessons then the Disengage angle thrusts, then with step back, then two hits two steps, degage hit with third step - & so on as above & when teaching angle thrusts coach presents target and moves the target towards the student with legs, no moving of target as in to elbow
Sixte Opposition Thrust induction
A) from still short distance point on floor sixte opposition to body
B) sixte opposition to body with lunge point on floor
C) sixte opposition to Elbow with lunge & recover line degage redouble to elbow
D) quarte Engage on pupils Tempo ( can be coaches invito ),
then on coaches Pressure as c. guard stays wide in Q engage and S redouble
E) on recovery coach can pressure by taking circle quarte to invite sixte opposition thrust as a Counter Attack
N.B once elements succesful introduce mobility and use the second part of C. and the pressing to develop motif five hits
A) pupil from medium one hit top of wrist one hit to elbow with double step back
B) as above + disengage hi to body with 3rd large step back.. like the stop hit
C) as above + disengage lunge to body ( I step back during the taking over )
D) as above + recover with disengage hit
N.B I give blade first always & only tap to confirm the LAST succesful hit of a phrase in epee

fencing movement ( B. )

Fleche induction the fleche can generally be taught first by teaching cross steps and then with static help by holding fencers arm, then with paired games
A ) lunge, forward recover, into fleche
B ) fleche from lunge
C) lunge partial recovery back ft and move front ft back, into fleche

Individual lesson ( C. )

A short Individual lesson
warm up with simple lunge to body, on pupils initiative, then add ft.work on coaches opening to Q or S then add ft.work on coaches continued Change Parries, on pupils initiative, then add ft.work with disengage, on coaches Pressure Plays Q or S then add ft.work, All of above with Fleche
A ) simple lunge to arm, pupils initiative, Q and S, locking off at end
B ) on coaches opening to Q or S simple lunge to arm, then add ft.work
C ) with disengage, on coaches pressure then add ft.work
D ) as above with remise on recovery
E ) simple lunge to wrist on coaches invitation
A ) step back Parry Riposte S, Q, O, Scnd, Spt, to body then add ft.work
B ) Lunges to body, remise to body with recovery, redouble with long step
C ) lunges to arm, remise to arm, redouble to body then add ft.work
N.B I must take the parries b4 the step... hand first
N.B later I can add the tactical condition
Tactical condition
Combine exercises making sure combination won't cause similarity between signals, ( N. B see Signal condition in Lesson 5 Five for correct foot & hand tempo conditions )
And occasionally coach takes parry with a step back and
A ) takes over with a deep early attack to provoke Counterparry Riposte or
B.) takes over late in recovery and presents for the opposition thrust counter attack or
C ) as above and presents de sous for the redouble counter attack


Lesson 4

( B.) fencing movement advanced games with target

advanced Footwork. methods & exercises
advanced Footwork. Glide & Balestra
advanced Footwork. benchwork and paired training
( D. ) components
The Feint induction add tactical condition and add ft.work
The Change Engagement induction add tactical condition and add ft.work
The Presse induction
N.B there are important changes in Timing in this exercise add tactical condition and add ft.work
The Beat induction
The Beat intermediate
N.B it is vital that the coach verbally tells the pupil which attack
Angle thrust intermediate

fencing movement ( B.) advanced

Advanced Games with target
A) Short range hitting in pairs miming frequency, target
B) as above use complex footwork
C) hold glove and drop it down target
D) Use Blade as a pendulum and hits between
Advanced footwork. Methods & Exercises
A) steps forward and back but beginning back & front foot
B) as above followed by normal step and lunge
C) step f, step b, then X step f and b then A. steps, followed by normal step and lunge
D) explosive step preparation. Front foot back, back foot forward to meet in the middle then step and lunge
E ) appel front foot and step f then add D. but after middle join front foot reaches forward for appel before explosive lunge continuation Advanced footwork. Glide & Balestra
A) glide ( stop short ), step forward and bounce on the landing a little forward Teaching the glide : from en gaurde front ft forward, so leg is stretched, then land front sole flat, bend front leg forwards and as centre shifts back leg is stretching, make a jump stop short
B) balestra; defined either as the jump and the lunge or just the jump part Teaching the balestra : press down on front knee while bringing leg down with a slap into the stretched position finish weight centred / hopping on back ft while swinging in lever of front with each landing, toes pointed
C ) fleche & crosstep, Teaching fleche and the cross step : the hips should swivel but not shoulders, back foot toes should point forwards, centre shifts forward back arm checks shoulders front arm leads action
D ) follow ex C (methods) above replace the step lunge with a stop short or a balestra
E ) follow C and replace the step lunge with both stop short & balestra fleche or lunge Advanced footwork.
Benchwork and paired training
jump down from bench land in engaurd, step lunge
lunge and forward recover fleche from end of bench
then step lunge as above, then fleche from the lunge position
as above B & C with a bench slanted downwards to assist speed
various games with partner throwing glove for attacker to catch to assist stretched attack

components ( D. ) intermediate

The Feint induction
A ) on pupils tempo one two ( feint & disengage ) emphasizing progressive movement i.e lunging on the feint. add coaches sweeping parries, vary timing to challenge
B ) one two three ( feint & twice disengage ) emphasis progressive hand.
C ) feint and counter disengage
D ) feint, counter disengage and disengage
E ) finally doublets ( feint disengage and counter disengage ) With epee the maximum is a double feint always tell student which one to practice start with pupils tempo and progress to complex signals add tactical condition and add ft.work to each
The Change Engagement induction
on pupils tempo, as above coach chooses action verbally, Q engage change S S engage change Q
Coach taps pupils blade to signal change
As above S and Q changes on coaches tempo with a redouble on recovery
As above exercises with Sptm and O
Coach should present his blade flat with foible to pupils forte to assist effective change
add tactical condition and add ft.work to each
The Presse induction
A ) blades to ing and fro ing in engagement master presses to signal disengage lunge
B ) presses to invite feint and disengage emphasizing the disengage with an extending arm to show a deep feint
C) the above two with starting in S & Q engagement
D ) with a progressive lunge doublet coach always takes circular parry after disengage and coach verbally asks for the progressive attack
E ) as above E. but choice for pupil not to lunge if coach steps in with a simple parry coach must always invite the one two as doublet is too difficult for student at close quarters
N.B for the student there are important changes in timing in this exercise, for example when teaching the feint element pupil is taking line on the disengage so the master responds to that line slowly at first. And can then incorporate a test element by stepping forward first then stepping back so pupil will disengage riposte and disengage lunge keeping line all the while add tactical condition and add ft.work to each

components ( D. ) intermediate
The Beat induction
The beat should be ...Strong ... Dry ... limited...quick much stronger than foil from still hold pupils point and let them beat, master replies and checks hand and forearm movement wrist straight, forearm rotates. Then from still, master beats and pupil replies, then with adjustments to tempo, then with ft.work, then if master opens distance pupil should lunge, follow this with a redouble stop hit on recovery. same as above but pupil must beat once to masters two beats and twice to his one, then the different beats can be taught all with lunge i.e semi circular, circular / change

A ) simple beats with lunge to body then add ft.work
B) change beats with lunge to body then add ft.work
C ) both of above later add S parry riposte to arm or O to body then add ft.work
D ) both of above with angle hit to arm then add ft.work
E ) from engagement ; on coaches pressure disengage to inside wrist quarte beat to wrist, redouble to wrist ( by counter ), S parry riposte to arm pupil steps back each time and coach steps long on last.
The beat intermediate
A ) beat show a feint then disengage with lunge to body, to arm add ft.work
B ) beat counter disengage with lunge to body, to arm add ft.work
C ) beat one two with lunge to body, to arm add ft.work
D ) beat doublet ( simple & counter ) with lunge to body, to arm add ft.work
E ) beat trompe ( counter & simple ) with lunge to body, to arm later add parry P or Q flanconade while in lunge and add ft.work
N.B all of the above it is vital that the coach verbally tells the student which one

Angle Thrusts intermediate
coach must be very mindful of point and completely supinate and pronate his presentations to provide good fixing opportunity. Mindful of point because this signals wether the follow through parry riposte is to be simple, circular or semi. Start with single steps single hits, then double double, then parry the first and only Allow the second hit N.B coach to give good signal to assist this last action must Step long first then accelerate into second shorter step


Lesson 5

( C. ) individual lesson

Principal Lesson Plan
Signal Condition
N.B coaches methodology for hand & foot signals
( D. ) components motif
Angle Thrust
The Coupe induction
The Flick induction
motif Coupes, Flicks to wrist
N.B This component good for coach to practice cheat steps

individual lesson ( C. ) Advanced

Principal Lesson Plan
warm up with simple lunge to body, on pupils initiative, then on coaches initiative by coaches opening to Q or S
B ) as above add ft.work and coach can step in without blade to invite direct lunge
C ) if coach stops moving with blade in front then student beat attacks
D ) if coach stops moving without blade then pupil should show a feint and attack
E ) if coach attempts to take the blade pupil should allow this and respond to the pressure with a feint and attack

Signal condition
Teaching method can be with the following : five stages, pupils tempo masters tempo, masters tempo with mobility,foot tempo, hand and foot tempo
The foot tempo is the vital component, there are three foot tempo invitos ( signals ) Master steps forward then back and then pupil hits at the beginning of masters step forward, master must exaggerate Size of step / master takes two steps back and pupil hits on masters third step forward / master takes fast small step forward and pupil hits on masters 2nd larger step. Then hand and foot, with engagement. In the case of the feint then the master must Take the parry and finish his step as the pupils point lands i.e the feint attack comes In one fencing time

( D. ) Advanced

motif Angle Thrust
Coach starts in quarte engagement & on pressure pupil :
A ) disengage hits outside ( coach pushes through to Q )
B ) disengage hits inside ( coach takes simple S )
C ) disengage hits under with pronation ( coach takes Sptm half circle )
D ) disengage hits on top ( coach takes low Scnd )
So the pupil takes 4 steps back and the last one is long ( so I give deep Scnd )

The Coupe induction

A ) coach engages in Q and takes circular S to give signal for coupe with lunge, circular S is easier at first for pupil to observe, and check the coupe is only awrist action not with the forearm, check point fixes properly
B ) then coach engages in Q and presses through to signal coupe against Q with lunge
C ) as above two but without blade contact, coach starts with low point and exaggerates S or Q to invite coupe lunge attack
D ) as a counter attack so coupe stop hit stepping back as A,B,C
E ) as above D and add S parry riposte ( coach will need to take a second step, but pupil only takes one with the stop hit, so parry riposte on the spot )
motif coupes and Flicks to wrist induction
Before giving this component and after teaching coupe warm it up :
after teaching the coupe then teach the disengage flicks, with supination and
pronation firstly with lunges then with steps forwards
A ) coupe hit and step back ( coach starts in engagement pushes through to S )
B ) pronate disengage flick to outside wrist step back ( coach takes Q )
C ) supinate disengage flick to inside ( coach takes S )
D ) S parry riposte on the spot ( after above coaches point should be in the right place so as coach simply closes distance for deep attack it gives correct signal )
This component is a good chance for coach to practice cheat steps so I take two normal steps forward beginning with back foot crossing, in other words a passtep & then either one long pass to finish or short pass and add a fencing step which begins back foot and is quite long to simulate lunge, this second variant requires a change of rhythm , coach must accelerate.


Lesson 6

( D. ) components

motif Parry, Flick & Opposition Thrust advanced
motif Flick hits with :: Feint , Pressing , Beat , Change Engagement , Change Beat
motif Angle Thrusts with Parry Riposte
motif warm up Prise du Fer induction
motif Fleche with change engagement, feint, flanconade, coupe The Second Intention induction
motif angle thrusts, riposte by disengage, feint attack, redouble Change, Ceding, Opposition Parries induction

( D. ) advanced

motif Parry, Flick & Opposition Thrust
A ) holding parry Scnd and step back ( coach steps forward )
B ) flick hit top of arm and step back ( coach steps forward )
C ) octave opposition thrust and step back ( coach steps forward slightly long)
N.B this is a very easy exercise for the coach but very difficult for the student
It can be made more difficult if coach asks for beat and hit then as B, this so beat to wrist and coach gives his blade very early, pupil only steps twice motif flick hits with feint, pressing, beat, change engagement, change beat A ) show a feint disengage flick hit to wrist ( coach takes Q )
B ) from engagement on coaches pressure as above ( coach starts in Q and pushes to Q )
C ) beat show a feint and as A
D ) change engagements then on pressure as B ( coach starts in S and takes Q )
E ) change beat show a feint as A
N.B all these with a step forward for the first time, then with a lunge and add a Tactical Condition so if coach takes a very quick step back and parries then pupil remise in the the recovery from lunge and parry ripostes in one smooth action in one fencing time.
motif angle thrusts with parry riposte
A ) from still, point on floor take circle sixte parry and hit to body
on step back then as above
on step back Q or S to elbow
disengage angle thrust then as C.
two redouble stop hits then as C. so pupil steps three times
warm up motif
lunge on pupils tempo, lunge two taps recover on pupils tempo
at short distance, hit step back with line, two hits two steps
as above change frequency pupil keeps line and 2nd hit landing on my step forward
hit direct with medium short and long, with double taps
hit to arm with opposition, medium, then with steps forward, steps back, step lunge
continuous angle thrust hits top outside and beneath, stepping forward and back
Prise du Fer induction
Teaching the bind ; from still the pupil should begin in the opposite quarter from which a coach would like the bind, i.e starting in quarte,
pupil takes a sixte holding parry and coulees in. The Prise du fer should be taught first with lunges, first the Coule, then the Envelopment,
then the Bind, then the Croise The croise is otherwise known as the flanconade of which there are two, internal and external.
After they have all been taught as an attack then they should be taught as a parry riposte.

( D. ) advanced

motif fleche with change engagement, feint, flanconade, coupe
A) on coaches presentation pupil engages Q, change S and to Q again all the while moving blade forwardâ?¦ coach opens distance just before last Q thus pupil should begin the fleche with full extension
B ) as above but on the Q the coach parries so inviting the fleche to be by disengage to body ( important to emphasise disengagement with the point only round the guard ) C ) as above but on the parry the pupil disengage shows a feint before deceiving again then the flanconade fleche then the coupe fleche which can be executed with both high and low line

The Second Intention induction
on coaches presentation pupil coules with step and lunge

B ) if coach deceives the coule pupil must stop in the step and parry Q riposte to arm with opposition or flanconadeâ?¦ thus the action is as if the pupil had read the intention
C) the above two actions with a step lunge or step fleche
N.B there should be coaches emphasis on timing here to create the correct condition for a second intention attack, the coaches disengage should be quite wide so the student is not taking a counter attack as they would with a small disengage but more a clear second intention action

motif angle thrusts, riposte by disengage, feint attack, redouble
coach with circular S steps in presenting inside wrist, then circular S again with step forward invites to inside wrist, then straight thrust with third longer step forward â?¦ pupil is told to take Q and on the contact coach is already pressing against the parry and himself takes narrow Q and presenting elbow.. so the pupil has made a parry riposte by disengage. Then the coach presents de sous and opens distance and waits for the pupil to make seconde engagement and further waits for the pupil to show a feint in the high line before taking S, upon which the pupil counter disengages with the lunge ( this can also be a step and lunge if the coach opens distance at different times ) .. on recovery the coach takes sweeping Q and closes in to invite the redouble stop hit.

Change, Ceding, Opposition Parries induction

A) pupil is in O, coach presses and tries to take O, pupil pronates to Seconde to strengthen parry then supinates back for octave opposition to flank B ) or when coach presses and tries to take O then pupil waits till last moment and dropping body slightly cedes to low quarte parry riposte ( pupil should bend knees and take guard as low as possible ) C ) or when coach presses and tries to take O then the pupil changes parries septime and riposte with opposition. D ) the high line equivalents would be S to tierce back to Sixte for oppostion, prime from S for the ceding parry and change to Q for opposition E ) from septime there is a ceding parry to Tierce v. difficult to execute technically, and ceding parry from Q no modern equivalent and is even more difficult to execute and from which no direct riposte is possible.

N.B with this exercise all parries should be taken with a step back, the coach can stand still in some cases, the exceptions are the ceding parries which should be executed from stationary or with a step in or a step to the side.




EPEE, ENDS



Foil

Lesson 1 (Individual Lesson)

(C.) Technical Lesson Plan

Principal Lesson Plan devised of four 4 elements,
A). thrust direct short distance
B). parry riposte direct ( wait in parry )
C). lunge direct, p r direct
D). foot tempo without blade
E). hand tempo

A). beat direct short distance
B). parry riposte ( wait in parry )
C). beat lunge
D). foot tempo with mobility
E). hand tempo with mobility

A). engagement no step, disengage / direct lunge
B). parry riposte, direct / disengage
C). step engage, disengage / direct lunge
D). foot tempo, engage will be solved when I'm static
E). hand tempo, when I give blade OR p r if I take over

A). engage solved finish direct / indirect with / without lunge
B). if unsolved beat direct
C). p r if I decieve and take over ( WAIT in Parry )
D). foot tempo
E). hand tempo + if I take blade away then continue

Test exercise & variation
As on E above if I step back taking away the blade & step in with absence then attack into my preparation The fifth 5 element; to end lesson teach A - E of warm up key with new action for preparation of next lesson i.e change line or the feint attack.
N.B. as an entire 30 minute lesson this can only be taught after two years or more....for beginners choice would be 1 & 3 and elements of 4 but not beat, just the parry so 4C & 4E. With 5 if could be the warm up of the beat so 2 or it could be 1 with a different parry.

(C.) Tactical Lesson Plan

Principal Lesson Plan devised of six 6 actions
At long distance, student steps forward preparation and :
A). attacks w direct lunge invito static
OR attacks w fleche invito static voice instruction
B). parry riposte invito i take over with blade and step
C). keeps distance parry riposte invito I step back a few times and then step in with blade
D). keeps distance stop hit invito I keep advancing and gradually take blade away ( not hand tempo, it's on students own tempo )
E). attack w step and lunge invito i step back
OR attack with balestra invito i step back voice instruction
F). attack into preparation invito i take a few steps back then step in taking blade away

Test exercise & variation
once condition is secure then add the redouble / remise to A. ( teach first in the lunge then after recovery )

( C. ) Individual Lesson (Competition ) Lesson Plan
( Competition 5 - ten minutes )
Student uses one attack and either
A). recovers from lunge and parry riposte x 3 three different parries all with a step back
OR if unsuccessfull stays in lunge, parries, forward recovers & lunges or fleche
N.B with 1st branch same sequence ( metronome ) with 2nd always say which parry

Lesson 2 FOIL

(D.) Advanced

Motif ( Competition 5 - ten minutes )
A) lunge beat direct \ disengage
B) avoid my slow lunge with distance
C) parry circular sixte degage
D) if I stop take sixte \ quarte Coule direct
E) if I stop with line engage step & diagonal
Motif ( Competition 5 - ten minutes )
A) I press quarte, pupil takes circular sixte beat degage
OR I take sixte pupil circular quarte beat direct
B) Circular sixte opposition thrust
C) quarte direct
D) I make half hearted short attack pupil takes circular sixte degage,
OR with full commitment then circular sixte riposte direct
E) on my step forward pupil takes half step half extension, on my second step with my parry pupil derobes \ disengages

( C. ) Advanced

Motif ( Competition 5 - ten minutes )
1. warm up. direct & disengage
2.
A) main element.
feint and disengage
sometimes parry the attack
B) parry riposte ( I choose parry )
C) filo / opposition thrust ( with the change parry / double parry .. e.g contra quarte
3. final element. speed development
A) as 1
B) as 1 plus redouble
C) and redouble by one two or double ( six variations ) if I parry then simple counter parry.
N.B the contra quarte element of 2.C above is a good start for teaching the flanconade.


Sabre

Lesson 1 - Physical & Psychological Prep. SABRE

(A.) Stretches & Circuit training

A) ten minute static stretching and breathing practice
B) lunges in ballet pairs
C) flying angels
D) windmilling, assymetric
E) assisted stretching
F) a game

(B.) Fencing Movement

A) footwork and 8 lunges on wallbar (30 secs)
B) skipping aim for 180 jumps in (60 secs)
C) rest
D) bench jump down into enguarde, parry riposte or attack ( pairs )
E) footwork race ( in pairs ) down piste e.g 1 step + double step

(B.) Class Exercises - 12 paired routines with weapons

A) headcut with lunge, flank with lunge
B) double beat, double headcut, backstep, step & lunge
C) single beat headcut, single beat headcut, backstep single beat headcut with lunge
D) beat manchette head with lunge
E) flank cut with lunge is parried by tierce, parry quinte cut to flank staying in lunge
F) cut to head is parried by quinte, remise hand, feint head cut to flank
G) step forward preparation (defender steps back) step & lunge with acceleration
H) step forward preparation (defender steps forward) backstep, take over with step & lunge
I) low step forward with flank feint, feint head cut to flank with lunge
J) defender headcuts with lunge, attacker steps back to avoid, takes over with step & lunge to head
K) defender metronomes quinte tierze, attacker chooses the moment for feint attack in one lunge
L) defender takes quarte, attacker feints head hits flank if defender moves to quinte, or continues against tierze
Free fencing should follow
N.B Footnote : this is an hour long class, the exercises should be changed every two minutes or so with rest, constant flow of verbal correction


Lesson 2 - Fencing Movement - SABRE

( B.) Methods for teaching Head cuts. Flank cuts. Step & lunge to be used in conj. with blue book
Head Cuts

A) begin with thrust lunge. no gloves.to instill sense of distance
B) then cutting, always twice, to blade (held in both hands to form path) then head
C) lunge one cut to head. use point to prevent leaning
D) rythm cuts, pupil copies

Step and Lunge

A) lunge firstly beginning with rotation, then beginning with foot slow lunges
B) both variants again. watch gaurd. instill peripheral sense
C) as above a & b with a step and lunge
D) step preparation, lunge only on my invito, gradually quicken to join up action
E) tierze hitting practice, I hit tierce and pupil cuts to head continuously, I step off line, unreal close range, and softly open to lunge distance.

Flank Cut ( I can use right hand or with left inside hanging gaurd & quarte )

A) student in quinte I keep line above head pupil lunges to flank
B) I am in quinte Pupil from tierce hits manchette then flank
C) as b two taps wrist one to flank, on the 1st I can step out lunge
D) step preparation & on my opening to quinte flankcut w lunge
E) as above but once or twice delay the pupil on the preparation

Footnotes:

  • use both free hand to create weapon path
  • use point to keep student from leaning
  • eyes closed to internalize
  • use guard and foible to improve peripheral sense
  • move off centre to improve accuracy
  • hold mask in hand
  • hold weapon by blade
  • put student against the wall without mask for concentration exercise...with this last the student should lunge to head. stay in lunge. look down to floor. when ready look up. I attack mostly direct

Lesson 3 - Fencing Theory - SABRE

( *.) Methods for teaching

Pedagogy

Linear theory - once an exercise correct then build another
Spiral theory - An entire movement corrected by degrees
The advantage of spiral theory is that in beginning with an entire movement you give the fencer an understanding of the overall objective later on. I. E. to hit the opponent

Types of Lesson

1. Education ( Technical )
2. Competition (warm up & Tactical)

1. in the education lesson, only used in the club, it should be preceded by a warm up ( hitting on hand or foot tempo, keeping distance ) it should last 20 - 40 minutes... shorter for beginners and younger fencers & be divided into a) the warm up b) the technical element c) the warm down and introduction of new element.

2. in the competition lesson there are two types. it is used only at competition level. one is the warm up, just before going on the piste .. 5 - 10 minutes turn on the light & make the fencer feel comfortable. The Other the tactical type ... again 20 - 30 minutes then carry out all the learnt elements .. the aim is to develop speed, tactical awareness and above all confidence. It is risky but if the coach feels the ability well then one unexpected situation can be presented to be solved.


Lesson 4 - Components to Individual Lesson - SABRE

Beats and transport Engagements induction
Preparatory exercises for teaching lesson II & III blue book
N.B lesson I, II & III are sequential for example in lesson II ( covered here in lesson 2 two ) there is a quarte engagement component which prepares the student for lesson III's quarte beat....
Generally the engagement prepares the beat, in terms of range and technique the beat in III and here is the first time the student learns to attack the blade, rather than the target
I can hold my invito by the forte to aid technique
With step and lunge the beat is on the back foot, with lunge the beat is before the lunge
when I beat my blade must stop where the pupils was,,, no rebound or drop
I should hold guard well back with elbow behind me and point well up, this to ensure pupil takes the beat in front, same with lunge and step and lunge... later
I can give some extension and line for intermediate levels
(Change engagements)

A) I place point resting inside on guard, pupil transports on my pressure,then the same with middle to middle, then with some mobility and headcuts without the lunge
B) I place point resting outside on guard, ( if lefted I am in middle tierze ) and pupil goes to quarte and back, I check and hit the tierze and am finishing in line to invite the cut to flank... then as above ..... middle to middle ..mobility
C) Circular tierze transports with me on the guard, then on the middle.
D) starting with my point in a low line just below and inside guard, I go to headcut mask to invite circular tierce and the cut to flank
E) circle tierce half circle quinte, I tap and pupil cuts to flank.... for speed development of this I must thrust cut to head as soon as I decieve the Ctierze
A preparatory ex for warming up ...
1) Two thrusts to body continuously moving back ( feels like the foil stop hit, and pupil chooses moment )
2) then two taps body tap head from close ( moving again, continuously back )tap manchette and make throughcut ..... I should try and reach student after
3) two head two flank and WHEN i take quinte student throughcuts and steps out ( the 3rd exercise I should begin without mobility and then add later with pressing the student )
exercises one and two are also preparation for the counter attack
Footnote ~ teaching tightness of technique... if too wide then make en guard less deep, even resting position for tech. repitition ( no movement ) N.B when under pressure competitors &c go deeper, this is an illusion, that makes movements too large and too strong.


Individual lesson - Two short Individual Lessons for sabre

The feint attack & the stop cut .... with prep

A) step forward circular tierze engagement
B) engagement pressure plays & mobility, stop cut to manchette against my flank or chest cut
C) if I deceive engagement & attack, parry quarte riposte to head
D) if I deceive engagement and open slightly quarte then feint to flank coupe cut to head with lunge ( perhaps I stay in slow wide quarte, test )
E) if I deceive with line, then circular tierze opposition thrust
The remise & the change parry
A) if I take quinte at close distance, one flank two taps wrist head cut. I can invite lunge by opening after side cut leaving quinte in front of me so pupil need only lunge for headcut
B) If I give line ( upward angle from tierze pointing to pupils right eye ) Pupil takes circular tierze riposte
C) if I deceive circular tierze change parry quarte .... with a step back on the change, or with a lunge, or a step & lunge or static
D) if I stop moving without hand signal pupil should do nothing. Test
E) if I quinte invito then close quickly to tierce pupil in reference to component a. above should immediately remise to head. test
Footnote In the above sabre exercises there can be a parry riposte added to each component and in each exercise the parry riposte should be the same
throughout all components, as a separate motif. So prime, or seconde. very important to keep to the same parry so as not to distract the student from the principal learning task of each exercise. In ex. 1 it is the feint attack & the stop cut both with preparation.... ex. 2 is the remise & the change parry


TEACHING TIPS

Teaching profile keep body always turned well away from student in narrow profile for foil, sabre it is o.k to turn broadsider, keep elbow always tucked well in, almost over to quarte. keep free hand always in view
Teaching steps keep upper body static during movement to avoid false signals or advertising intentions, coaches steps are timed exactly the same as fencing steps i.e heel toe co-ordination
Teaching controls tempo, distance, target, invito, observation
Teaching tempo tempo ... is vital for controlling initiative, moment to attack, moment to parry, to counter attack. There is a difference between physical and psychical. Psychologically concentration has a frequency, all humans have this characteristic, everything in fencing can be taught except this.
Teaching observation when a class .. do not point out individuals, just articulate the fault, so use Positive ReInforcement. With multiple faults just correct the main fault, if correction is unsuccessful do not force it Change Focus
Teaching Invitos completed after the students action i.e student is quicker. realistic and threatening made when least expected
Teaching replacement done after a lunge.. i.e recover with line, in the fight it is always executed on pupils initiative so taught this way two ways let hit arrive, recover with line, step onto second hit OR at the lunge open distance to make hit fall short and student doesn't recover until I step in again onto hit.
Teaching envelopments my point should sit on pupils guard ...also suggested as paired exercise, with transports and change engagements
Teaching engagements present blade flat so student takes foible with their forte
Teaching technique my invitos and all students actions must be as tight as possible artificially so because in combat all movements become exaggerated
Teaching 1st Principle of technical lesson five repititions then progress on to next minimal footwork lots of lunges at first master adjusts the distance later student adjusts
Teaching opposition sixte guard position for finish of hits Tierze
Teaching bind / filo pupil should begin in the opposite quarter i.e starting in quarte,
pupil takes a sixte holding parry and coule in
Teaching opposition finish position always wrist bent cocked completely, so blades form a cross C my arm is straight
Teaching counter parrys I can use cheat presentations as learnt with lukovich
Teaching footwork generally hands on hips to teach separation and centre
Teaching double step key four preparatory exercises
I stamp back foot and immediately step forward
II front toe lift simultaneously with
III front ft forward stretch finish step by bringing up and as first stamp back foot and immediately step forward
IV back foot back and finish step by
Teaching differences sabre hand after foot
epee always line, steps , recovery coach taps at last hit of phrase only parry riposte with step back, and only ever one parry not time for two, coach can feint and get a change tho' Never teach recovery with parry Always Line degage

Aknowledgements

Mesters Gabor Bognar, Lukovich, Scepesi, zw

 
 
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